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verb prendre

Verb “Prendre” (To Take)

Lesson on the Verb “Prendre” (To Take)

Conjugation of “Prendre”

Below is a table showing how to conjugate the French verb “prendre” (to take) in the present tense, along with the pronunciation for each form. This will help you pronounce these forms correctly.

Person Present Tense Pronunciation
I (Je) prends [ pʀɑ̃ ]
You (Tu) prends [ pʀɑ̃ ]
He/She/It (Il/Elle/On) prend [ pʀɑ̃ ]
We (Nous) prenons [ pʀɘnɔ̃ ]
You (Vous) prenez [ pʀɘne ]
They (Ils/Elles) prennent [ pʀɛn ]

Definitions and Examples

1) To grasp or take something, to keep with oneself, to make one’s own


  • Je prends le livre sur la table.     I take the book on the table.
  • Tu prends ta veste avant de sortir.     You take your jacket before going out.

2) To take something from someone, to appropriate, to steal


  • Il prend le stylo de son ami.     He takes his friend’s pen.
  • Elle prend la place de son collègue.     She takes her colleague’s place.

3) To consume, to eat, to drink (e.g., to have a dessert), to swallow medication


  • Nous prenons du café au petit déjeuner.      We have coffee for breakfast.
  • Vous prenez votre médicament après le dîner.     You take your medicine after dinner.

4) To use a means of transport (e.g., to take the train)


  • Je prends le bus pour aller au travail.       I take the bus to go to work.
  • Ils prennent l’avion pour Paris.       They take the plane to Paris.

5) To buy, to choose


  • Tu prends une robe bleue pour la fête.        You choose a blue dress for the party.
  • Elle prend deux kilos de pommes au marché.     She buys two kilograms of apples at the market.

6) To catch a cold


  • Il prend froid après être sorti sous la pluie.     He catches a cold after going out in the rain.
  • Vous prenez facilement froid en hiver.     You easily catch cold in winter.

7) To write something down (e.g., to take notes)


  • Nous prenons des notes pendant la conférence.     We take notes during the lecture.
  • Elles prennent l’adresse de l’hôtel.        They write down the hotel’s address.

This lesson demonstrates the versatility of the verb “prendre” in French, highlighting its varied uses in everyday language. As you practice these examples, remember the different contexts in which “prendre” can be used.

avoir conjugation

Avoir conjugation

Mastering ‘Avoir’: Essential French Verb Conjugation for English Speakers

‘Avoir’ (to have) is one of the most important verbs in the French language, not only for its meanings and uses as a main verb but also as an auxiliary verb used in many tenses. This guide aims to provide English-speaking learners with a comprehensive overview of the conjugation of ‘avoir’ across all tenses and moods, complete with English translations. Understanding ‘avoir’ is crucial for forming past tenses and expressing possession, making it a vital component of French grammar.

Présent de l’Indicatif (Present Tense)

Français Anglais
J’ai I have
Tu as You have
Il/Elle a He/She has
Nous avons We have
Vous avez You have
Ils/Elles ont They have

Imparfait de l’Indicatif (Imperfect Tense)

Français Anglais
J’avais I had
Tu avais You had
Il/Elle avait He/She had
Nous avions We had
Vous aviez You had
Ils/Elles avaient They had

Futur Simple de l’Indicatif (Future Simple Tense)

Français Anglais
J’aurai I will have
Tu auras You will have
Il/Elle aura He/She will have
Nous aurons We will have
Vous aurez You will have
Ils/Elles auront They will have

Passé Simple de l’Indicatif (Simple Past Tense)

Français Anglais
J’eus I had
Tu eus You had
Il/Elle eut He/She had
Nous eûmes We had
Vous eûtes You had
Ils/Elles eurent They had

Plus-que-parfait de l’Indicatif (Pluperfect Tense)

Français Anglais
J’avais eu I had had
Tu avais eu You had had
Il/Elle avait eu He/She had had
Nous avions eu We had had
Vous aviez eu You had had
Ils/Elles avaient eu They had had

Futur Antérieur de l’Indicatif (Future Perfect Tense)

Français Anglais
J’aurai eu I will have had
Tu auras eu You will have had
Il/Elle aura eu He/She will have had
Nous aurons eu We will have had
Vous aurez eu You will have had
Ils/Elles auront eu They will have had

Conditionnel Présent (Present Conditional)

Français Anglais
J’aurais I would have
Tu aurais You would have
Il/Elle aurait He/She would have
Nous aurions We would have
Vous auriez You would have
Ils/Elles auraient They would have

Conditionnel Passé (Past Conditional)

Français Anglais
J’aurais eu I would have had
Tu aurais eu You would have had
Il/Elle aurait eu He/She would have had
Nous aurions eu We would have had
Vous auriez eu You would have had
Ils/Elles auraient eu They would have had

Subjonctif Présent (Present Subjunctive)

Français Anglais
Que j’aie That I have
Que tu aies That you have
Qu’il/elle ait That he/she has
Que nous ayons That we have
Que vous ayez That you have
Qu’ils/elles aient That they have

Subjonctif Imparfait (Imperfect Subjunctive)

Français Anglais
Que j’eusse That I had
Que tu eusses That you had
Qu’il/elle eût That he/she had
Que nous eussions That we had
Que vous eussiez That you had

In summary, mastering the verb ‘avoir’ is indispensable for anyone learning French. Not only does it serve as a fundamental verb for expressing possession and existence, but it is also essential as an auxiliary verb used in all compound tenses. This dual role underscores its importance in French grammar and daily language use. Familiarity with ‘avoir’ and its conjugations will significantly enhance your proficiency and understanding of French, allowing you to form correct and complex sentences.

passe composé with etre

Passé Composé with “Être”

Passé Composé with “Être” – French Grammar


In this lesson, we will explore the passé composé tense in French, focusing specifically on verbs that use “être” as the auxiliary verb. This aspect of French grammar is crucial for discussing past events. Note that we will not cover reflexive (pronominal) verbs in this lesson.

Understanding Passé Composé with “Être”


The passé composé with “être” is formed using the auxiliary verb “être” in the present tense followed by the past participle of the action verb. The key difference when using “être” is that the past participle must agree in gender and number with the subject.

Agreement with the Subject

The past participle changes depending on the subject:

  • Masculine Singular: No additional ending.
  • Feminine Singular: Add -e.
  • Masculine Plural: Add -s.
  • Feminine Plural: Add -es.

Examples for Agreement:

  • Il est monté.  He climbed up. 
  • Elle est montée.  She climbed up.
  • Ils sont montés. They climbed up.
  • Elles sont montées.  They [feminine] climbed up.

Conjugation Table

Affirmative (Positive) Negative
Je suis allé(e) Je ne suis pas allé(e)
Tu es arrivé(e) Tu n’es pas arrivé(e)
Il est parti Il n’est pas parti
Elle est restée Elle n’est pas restée
Nous sommes venu(e)s Nous ne sommes pas venus(e)s
Vous êtes sorti(es) Vous n’êtes pas sorti(es)
Ils sont nés Ils ne sont pas nés
Elles sont descendues Elles ne sont pas descendues

Dr. & Mrs. Vandertramp

A common mnemonic to remember the verbs that typically use “être” as the auxiliary verb in the passé composé is “Dr. & Mrs. Vandertramp”:

  • Devenir (to become)
  • Revenir (to come back)
  • Monter (to go up, to climb)
  • Rester (to stay)
  • Sortir (to go out)
  • Venir (to come)
  • Aller (to go)
  • Naître (to be born)
  • Descendre (to go down)
  • Entrer (to enter)
  • Rentrer (to return)
  • Tomber (to fall)
  • Retourner (to return)
  • Arriver (to arrive)
  • Mourir (to die)
  • Partir (to leave)

🍀 Exercises 🍀

 Exercise 1: Conjugating in Passé Composé

Conjugate the following sentences in passé composé using “être”.

  1. (Je / partir) en France.
  2. (Tu / arriver) tard.
  3. (Il / tomber) dans les escaliers.
  4. (Nous / revenir) de vacances.
  5. (Elles / naître) en avril.
  1. Je suis parti(e) en France.
  2. Tu es arrivé(e) tard.
  3. Il est tombé dans les escaliers.
  4. Nous sommes revenu(e)s de vacances.
  5. Elles sont nées en avril.

Exercise 2: Correct Form

Choose the correct past participle form to complete each sentence.

  1. Ils (ont / sont) ____ partis à huit heures.
  2. Elle (est / a) ____ restée chez elle.
  3. Nous (sommes / avons) ____ montés au premier étage.
  4. Tu (es / as) ____ retourné en Italie.
  5. Les chiens (sont / ont) ____ sortis dans le jardin.
  1. Ils sont partis à huit heures.
  2. Elle est restée chez elle.
  3. Nous sommes montés au premier étage.
  4. Tu es retourné en Italie.
  5. Les chiens sont sortis dans le jardin.

Exercise 3: Translate into French

Translate the following sentences into French, using the passé composé with “être”.

  1. They (female) arrived at the party.
  2. I went back home.
  3. You (singular, informal) came from the market.
  4. He was born in Paris.
  5. We (mixed group) went out last night.
  1. Elles sont arrivées à la fête.
  2. Je suis rentré(e) à la maison.
  3. Tu es venu(e) du marché.
  4. Il est né à Paris.
  5. Nous sommes sortis hier soir.


The passé composé with “être” is a key part of past tense narrative in French. By understanding and practicing the formation and agreement rules, you’ll enhance your ability to recount past events accurately. Remember, consistency in gender and number agreement is crucial for correct French communication.

# Passé Composé with “Être” – French Grammar

adjective Agreement

Adjective Agreement

French Adjective Agreement – Comprehensive Guide


Mastering adjective agreement in French is vital for accurate and nuanced communication. This lesson covers the agreement of adjectives in gender and number, offering structured exercises for reinforcement.

Adjective Agreement Rules

Gender Agreement

  • Adjectives agree with the noun they describe in gender (masculine or feminine).
  • To form the feminine, usually add -e to the masculine form.
Masculine Singular Feminine Singular English
grand grande big
petit petite small
amusant amusante amusing/funny
intéressant intéressante interesting
  • Examples with Qualitative Adjectives (Adjectifs Qualificatifs):
    • La grande maison (The big house)
    • Le petit chat (The small cat)
  • Examples with Attributive Adjectives (Adjectifs Attributs):
    • La maison est grande. (The house is big.)
    • Le chat est petit. (The cat is small.)

Certain adjectives necessitate a slight modification in the feminine form:

  • Un ami sportif -> Une amie sportive (An athletic friend)
  • Un garçon gentil -> Une fille gentille (A kind boy/girl)

Adjective Agreement : Examples of Adjectives with Modifications:


Adjective (Masculine Singular) Feminine Singular English Meaning
sportif sportive athletic
actif active active
bon bonne good
mignon mignonne cute
cher chère expensive, dear
léger légère light (weight)
italien italienne Italian
brésilien brésilienne Brazilian
gros grosse big, fat
gras grasse fatty, greasy
long longue long
gentil gentille kind, nice
heureux heureuse happy

Number Agreement

  • Adjectives agree in number (singular or plural).
  • To form the plural, typically add -s to the singular form.
Masculine Plural Feminine Plural English
grands grandes big
petits petites small
amusants amusantes amusing/funny
intéressants intéressantes interesting
  • Examples with Qualitative Adjectives:
    • Les grandes maisons (The big houses)
    • Les petits chats (The small cats)
  • Examples with Attributive Adjectives:
    • Les maisons sont grandes. (The houses are big.)
    • Les chats sont petits. (The cats are small.)


Exercise 1: Feminine Form

Convert the following masculine adjectives to their feminine form.

  1. gentil
  2. intéressant
  3. bon
  4. jeune
  5. amusant
  1. gentille
  2. intéressante
  3. bonne
  4. jeune
  5. amusante.

Exercise 2: Plural Form

Make the following singular adjectives plural.

Example : Une histoire intéressante.  ➡︎ Des histoires intéressantes.

  1. Un chien agressif.
  2. Une maison ancienne.
  3. Un enfant mignon.
  4. Une histoire longue.
  5. Le petit oiseau.
  1. Des chiens agressifs.
  2. Des maisons anciennes.
  3. Des enfants mignons.
  4. Des histoires longues.
  5. Les petits oiseaux.

Exercise 3: Correct Form in Sentences

Choose the correct adjective form for each sentence.

  1. Les fleurs (magnifique/ magnifiques).
  2. Le livre (intéressant/intéressants/intéressante/intéressantes).
  3. Les chiens (amusant/amusants/amusante/amusantes).
  4. La voiture (rapide/rapides).
  5. Les maisons (bleu/bleus/bleue/bleues).
  1. Les fleurs magnifiques.
  2. Le livre intéressant.
  3. Les chiens amusants.
  4. La voiture rapide.
  5. Les maisons bleues.

Exercise 4: Translate and Agree

Translate the following English sentences into French, ensuring adjective agreement.

  1. The cats are funny.
  2. The house is pretty.
  3. The interesting books are on the table.
  4. The chairs are expensive.
  5. The girl is kind.
  1. Les chats sont amusants.
  2. La maison est jolie.
  3. Les livres intéressants sont sur la table.
  4. Les chaises sont chères.
  5. La fille est gentille.

Exercise 5: Adjective Modification

Modify the given adjectives to fit the noun they describe in gender and number.

  1. Les garçons (gentil).
  2. La femme (sportif).
  3. Les filles (heureux).
  4. Le garçon (intéressant).
  5. Les amis (fidèle).
  1. Les garçons gentils.
  2. La femme sportive.
  3. Les filles heureuses.
  4. Le garçon intéressant.
  5. Les amis fidèles.

Adjective Agreement : Conclusion

Through these exercises, you’ve practiced applying the rules of adjective agreement in French across various contexts, enhancing your grammatical accuracy and expressive capability. Continue to practice these principles to further solidify your understanding and usage of French adjectives in conversation and writing.


Past Tense Exercises in French

Past Tense Exercises in French: Master the Passé Composé

Dive into mastering the French passé composé with our targeted exercises. From regular to irregular verbs, these activities are designed to enhance your understanding and fluency in expressing past actions. Whether you’re beginning your French language journey or looking to solidify your grasp of this essential tense, our exercises provide a clear, step-by-step pathway to improving your skills. Start now and unlock the full potential of your French language proficiency.

🔷 Past Tense Exercises 1: Introduction to the Past Tense

In this exercise, conjugate the simple verbs that end in -é. Use the auxiliary “avoir”.

  1. (danser) Hier, nous _________ jusqu’à minuit.
  2. (passer) Ils _________ devant la maison.
  3. (aimer) J’_________ ce film.
  4. (parler) Tu _________ avec elle au téléphone?
  5. (regarder) Nous _________ un documentaire intéressant.
  6. (jouer) Les enfants _________ dans le jardin.
  7. (écouter) Vous _________ la nouvelle chanson ?
  8. (travailler) Elle _________ toute la journée.
  9. (chercher) J’_________ mes clés partout.
  10. (arrêter) Ils _________ le bus juste à temps.
  1. Hier, nous avons dansé jusqu’à minuit.
  2. Ils ont passé devant la maison.
  3. J’ai aimé ce film.
  4. Tu as parlé avec elle au téléphone?
  5. Nous avons regardé un documentaire intéressant.
  6. Les enfants ont joué dans le jardin.
  7. Vous avez écouté la nouvelle chanson ?
  8. Elle a travaillé toute la journée.
  9. J’ai cherché mes clés partout.
  10. Ils ont arrêté le bus juste à temps.

Translation : 

  1. Yesterday, we danced until midnight.
  2. They passed in front of the house.
  3. I liked that movie.
  4. Did you talk to her on the phone?
  5. We watched an interesting documentary.
  6. The children played in the garden.
  7. Did you listen to the new song?
  8. She worked all day.
  9. I looked for my keys everywhere.
  10. They caught the bus just in time.

🔷 Past Tense Exercises 2: Introduction to Past Participles Ending in -i, -is, -it

Conjugate the verbs with the auxiliary “avoir”.

  1. (finir) Vous _________ vos devoirs ?
  2. (choisir) J’_________ une robe pour la soirée.
  3. (comprendre) Ils _________ les instructions.
  4. (prendre) Tu _________ le dernier biscuit !
  5. (écrire) Elle _________ une lettre à son ami.
  6. (dire) Nous _________ la vérité.
  7. (produire) L’usine _________ des voitures électriques.
  8. (construire) Ils _________ une nouvelle école.
  9. (apprendre) J’_________ le français depuis un an.
  10. (mettre) Tu _________ la table pour le dîner ?
  1. Vous avez fini vos devoirs ?
  2. J’ai choisi une robe pour la soirée.
  3. Ils ont compris les instructions.
  4. Tu as pris le dernier biscuit !
  5. Elle a écrit une lettre à son ami.
  6. Nous avons dit la vérité.
  7. L’usine a produit des voitures électriques.
  8. Ils ont construit une nouvelle école.
  9. J’ai appris le français depuis un an.
  10. Tu as mis la table pour le dîner ?

Translation : 

  1. Did you finish your homework?
  2. I chose a dress for the evening.
  3. They understood the instructions.
  4. You took the last cookie!
  5. She wrote a letter to her friend.
  6. We told the truth.
  7. The factory produced electric cars.
  8. They built a new school.
  9. I have been learning French for a year.
  10. Did you set the table for dinner?

🔷 Past Tense Exercises 3: Verbs with Irregular Past Participles

Conjugate the following verbs with the auxiliary “avoir”.

  1. (avoir) Hier, j’_________ un rendez-vous chez le médecin.
  2. (être) Ils _________ en vacances la semaine dernière.
  3. (faire) Nous _________ une grande promenade.
  4. (ouvrir) Tu _________ la fenêtre ?
  5. (découvrir) Elle _________ un vieux livre dans le grenier.
  6. (recevoir) Vous _________ beaucoup de cadeaux pour votre anniversaire.
  7. (voir) J’_________ un film incroyable hier soir.
  8. (vivre) Ils _________ dans cette maison pendant dix ans.
  9. (lire) Tu _________ le nouveau roman de cet auteur ?
  10. (prendre) Nous _________ le train pour aller à Paris.
  1. Hier, j’ai eu un rendez-vous chez le médecin.
  2. Ils ont été en vacances la semaine dernière.
  3. Nous avons fait une grande promenade.
  4. Tu as ouvert la fenêtre ?
  5. Elle a découvert un vieux livre dans le grenier.
  6. Vous avez reçu beaucoup de cadeaux pour votre anniversaire.
  7. J’ai vu un film incroyable hier soir.
  8. Ils ont vécu dans cette maison pendant dix ans.
  9. Tu as lu le nouveau roman de cet auteur ?
  10. Nous avons pris le train pour aller à Paris.

Translation : 

  1. Yesterday, I had a doctor’s appointment.
  2. They were on vacation last week.
  3. We took a long walk.
  4. Did you open the window?
  5. She found an old book in the attic.
  6. You received many gifts for your birthday.
  7. I saw an incredible movie last night.
  8. They lived in this house for ten years.
  9. Did you read the new book by that author?
  10. We took the train to go to Paris.

🔷 Exercise 4: Mix of Past Participles

Conjugate the verbs in the past tense with the auxiliary “avoir”, mixing different types of past participles.

  1. (peindre) Elle _________ un tableau magnifique.
  2. (croire) Vous _________ à cette histoire ?
  3. (perdre) J’_________ mon téléphone hier.
  4. (attendre) Ils _________ trop longtemps à l’arrêt de bus.
  5. (répondre) Tu _________ à l’email du professeur ?
  6. (entendre) Nous _________ un bruit étrange la nuit dernière.
  7. (vouloir) J’_________ te voir avant ton départ.
  8. (savoir) Ils _________ la réponse à la question.
  9. (boire) Tu _________ tout le jus d’orange.
  10. (mordre) Le chien _________ le facteur.
  1. Elle a peint un tableau magnifique.
  2. Vous avez cru à cette histoire ?
  3. J’ai perdu mon téléphone hier.
  4. Ils ont attendu trop longtemps à l’arrêt de bus.
  5. Tu as répondu à l’email du professeur ?
  6. Nous avons entendu un bruit étrange la nuit dernière.
  7. J’ai voulu te voir avant ton départ.
  8. Ils ont su la réponse à la question.
  9. Tu as bu tout le jus d’orange.
  10. Le chien a mordu le facteur.

Translation : 

  1. She painted a beautiful picture.
  2. Did you believe that story?
  3. I lost my phone yesterday.
  4. They waited too long at the bus stop.
  5. Did you reply to the teacher’s email?
  6. We heard a strange noise last night.
  7. I wanted to see you before you left.
  8. They knew the answer to the question.
  9. You drank all the orange juice.
  10. The dog bit the mailman.

🔷 Exercise 5: Advanced with More Complex Sentences

Conjugate the verbs in the past tense using more complex sentence structures.

  1. (écrire) Pendant les vacances, j’_________ une carte postale à mes grands-parents.
  2. (dire) À la réunion, tu _________ quelque chose d’important.
  3. (prendre) Avant de partir, nous _________ des photos devant la maison.
  4. (lire) Ce matin, elle _________ le journal en buvant son café.
  5. (comprendre) Vous _________ le problème de mathématiques ?
  6. (avoir) L’année dernière, ils _________ trois semaines de vacances en juillet.
  7. (faire) Pour son anniversaire, nous _________ une surprise.
  8. (ouvrir) Hier soir, j’_________ un cadeau de ma sœur.
  9. (être) Ce film _________ vraiment intéressant, selon moi.
  10. (vivre) Ils _________ des moments difficiles mais restent optimistes.
  1. Pendant les vacances, j’ai écrit une carte postale à mes grands-parents.
  2. À la réunion, tu as dit quelque chose d’important.
  3. Avant de partir, nous avons pris des photos devant la maison.
  4. Ce matin, elle a lu le journal en buvant son café.
  5. Vous avez compris le problème de mathématiques ?
  6. L’année dernière, ils ont eu trois semaines de vacances en juillet.
  7. Pour son anniversaire, nous avons fait une surprise.
  8. Hier soir, j’ai ouvert le cadeau de ma sœur.
  9. Ce film a été intéressant, selon moi.
  10. Ils ont vécu des moments difficiles mais ils restent optimistes.

Translation : 

  1. During the holidays, I wrote a postcard to my grandparents.
  2. At the meeting, you said something important.
  3. Before leaving, we took pictures in front of the house.
  4. This morning, she read the newspaper while drinking her coffee.
  5. Did you understand the math problem?
  6. Last year, they had three weeks of vacation in July.
  7. For his birthday, we made a surprise.
  8. Last night, I opened my sister’s gift.
  9. In my opinion, this movie was interesting.
  10. They lived through difficult times but remain optimistic.

#Past Tense Exercises in French

The Past Participle in French

Past Participle in French

The Past Participle in French


The past participle is a versatile form used in various tenses in French, including the perfect and pluperfect. It’s essential for forming compound tenses ( like passé composé ) and is also used as an adjective. Understanding how to form and use the past participle correctly is crucial for mastering French grammar.


– I saw a friend. (J’ai vu un ami.)
– I offered him a book. (Je lui ai offert un livre.)
– We took the subway. (Nous avons pris le métro.)

These sentences use the past participle in different contexts, illustrating its importance in conveying past actions.

Formation of the Past Participle

The past participle in French can be grouped phonetically into different endings, each with its pronunciation and set of rules.

1. Past Participles Ending in -é [e] (for all verbs ending in -er)


“danser” (to dance) becomes “dansé” (danced), “aller” (to go) becomes “allé” (gone), “passer” (to pass) becomes “passé” (passed).

French Verb English Meaning Past Participle (FR) English Translation
danser to dance dansé danced
aller to go allé gone
passer to pass passé passed

 2. Past Participles Ending in [i]

This category includes three endings:

➡︎ Ending in -i

For example, “finir” (to finish) becomes “fini” (finished), “choisir” (to choose) becomes “choisi” (chosen), “grossir” (to gain weight) becomes “grossi” (gained weight), “dormir” (to sleep) becomes “dormi” (slept).

French Verb English Meaning Past Participle (FR) English Translation
finir to finish fini finished
choisir to choose choisi chosen
grossir to gain weight grossi gained weight
dormir to sleep dormi slept

➡︎ Ending in -is

Such as “prendre” (to take) becomes “pris” (taken), “comprendre” (to understand) becomes “compris” (understood), “apprendre” (to learn) becomes “appris” (learned), “mettre” (to put) becomes “mis” (put).

French Verb English Meaning Past Participle (FR) English Translation
prendre to take pris taken
comprendre to understand compris understood
apprendre to learn appris learned
mettre to put mis put

➡︎ Ending in -it

For example, “écrire” (to write) becomes “écrit” (written), “dire” (to say) becomes “dit” (said), “produire” (to produce) becomes “produit” (produced), “construire” (to build) becomes “construit” (built).

French Verb English Meaning Past Participle (FR) English Translation
écrire to write écrit written
dire to say dit said
produire to produce produit produced
construire to build construit built

3. Past Participles Ending in -u [y]


“vivre” (to live) becomes “vécu” (lived), “avoir” (to have) becomes “eu” (had), “lire” (to read) becomes “lu” (read), “devoir” (to have to) becomes “dû” (had to), “pouvoir” (to be able to) becomes “pu” (been able to).

French Verb English Meaning Past Participle (FR) English Translation
vivre to live vécu lived
avoir to have eu had
lire to read lu read
devoir to have to had to
pouvoir to be able to pu been able to

4. Special Cases

Examples :

“faire” (to do/make) becomes “fait” (done/made), “être” (to be) becomes “été” (been), “peindre” (to paint) becomes “peint” (painted), “craindre” (to fear) becomes “craint” (feared), “ouvrir” (to open) becomes “ouvert” (opened).

French Verb English Meaning Past Participle (FR) English Translation
faire to do/make fait done/made
être to be été been
peindre to paint peint painted
craindre to fear craint feared
ouvrir to open ouvert opened


Understanding the formation and use of the past participle in French is key to mastering the language’s grammatical structure. Remembering these rules and practicing with examples will help solidify your knowledge and improve your French writing and speaking skills.

Review and Conversation Practice

Review and Conversation Practice

Lesson 23: Review and Conversation Practice


Welcome to Lesson 23, where we’ll consolidate our knowledge from previous lessons through review and conversation practice. This lesson is designed to reinforce your understanding of basic prepositions, the verb “aller,” country names in French, the present tense, frequency adverbs, possessive adjectives, common adjectives, discussing weather and time, hobbies and leisure activities, and directions and locations.

Review Highlights

➡︎ Basic Prepositions

Recall “à,” “de,” “sous,” “sur,” etc., and their uses in sentences.

➡︎ The Verb “Aller”

Practice conjugating “aller” and using it to discuss destinations.

➡︎  Countries in French

Review the names of countries and their corresponding prepositions.

➡︎ Present Tense

Reinforce the regular and irregular verbs in the present tense.

➡︎ Frequency Adverbs

Recall how to express frequency in activities.

➡︎ Possessive Adjectives

Practice using possessive adjectives in sentences to show ownership.

➡︎ Common Adjectives

Review the top 10 French adjectives and their correct gender and number agreement.

➡︎ Discussing Weather and Time

Recall how to talk about the weather and tell time in French.

➡︎ Hobbies and Leisure Activities

Review vocabulary related to common hobbies and leisure activities.

➡︎ Directions and Locations

Reinforce the expressions used to ask for and give directions.

🍀 Conversation Practice 🍀

Now, let’s apply what we’ve learned in some conversation scenarios. Each scenario combines elements from the lessons above.

Scenario 1: Meeting a New Friend

  • Discuss where you’re from, your hobbies, and how often you do them.

Scenario 2: Planning a Day Out

  • Use weather vocabulary to suggest activities and use directions to explain how to get to various locations.

Scenario 3: At a Party

  • Describe people at the party using adjectives, talk about relationships using possessive adjectives, and discuss plans using the verb “aller.”

Exercise: Create Your Dialogue

Choose one of the scenarios above and write a short dialogue, incorporating the grammar and vocabulary from previous lessons. Aim to use a variety of structures and expressions.


This lesson aimed to integrate and practice the French language skills we’ve developed. Continue practicing these scenarios, and don’t hesitate to mix elements from different lessons to build more complex and rich conversations. Bonne chance!

Hobbies French

Hobbies and Leisure Activities in French

Hobbies and Leisure Activities in French: A Guide for English Speakers


Diving into the world of hobbies and leisure activities in French is an exciting step towards broadening your conversational topics. This lesson focuses on introducing a variety of pastimes, providing you with the vocabulary and phrases needed to discuss your interests and inquire about others’ in French.

French free lesson

Key Vocabulary and Phrases

Common Hobbies

  • La lecture (Reading)
    • J’aime lire des romans. (I like to read novels.)
  • Le sport (Sports)
    • Je joue au football le weekend. (I play soccer on weekends.)
    • J’aime jouer au baseball avec mes amis. I like playing baseball with my friends.”
  • La musique (Music)
    • Elle joue du piano. (She plays the piano.)
  • Le cinéma (Movies/Cinema)
    • Nous allons souvent au cinéma. (We often go to the movies.)
  • La cuisine (Cooking)
    • Il adore cuisiner des plats italiens. (He loves to cook Italian dishes.)
    • J’aime beaucoup faire de la pâtisserie. ( I like baking. )
  • Le voyage (Traveling)
    • Ils voyagent chaque année en Espagne. (They travel to Spain every year.)

Expressing Likes and Dislikes

  • J’adore… (I love…)
  • J’aime… (I like…)
  • Je n’aime pas… (I don’t like…)
  • Je déteste… (I hate…)

Asking About Hobbies

  • Quel est ton passe-temps préféré ? (What is your favorite hobby?)
  • Qu’est-ce que tu aimes faire pendant ton temps libre ? (What do you like to do in your free time?)
  • Tu joues d’un instrument de musique ? (Do you play a musical instrument?)

Verbs Related to Hobbies and Preferences

French Verb English Translation
aimer to like/love
adorer to love/adore
détester to hate
préférer to prefer
voyager to travel
cuisiner to cook
lire to read
jouer to play
nager to swim
courir to run
faire de la pâtisserie to bake
aller au cinéma to go to the movies
peindre to paint
écrire to write

Nouns Related to Hobbies and Activities

French Noun English Translation
la musique music
le sport sports
la lecture reading
la pâtisserie baking/pastry
le cinéma cinema/movies
la randonnée hiking
le dessin drawing
la danse dance
le football soccer/football
le baseball baseball
la marche walking
le vélo biking/cycling

This structured approach provides a clear division between actions (verbs) you might enjoy or dislike and the subjects or activities (nouns) you might be talking about. Adding verbs like “faire de la pâtisserie” (to bake) and “aller au cinéma” (to go to the movies) alongside hobbies such as “le football” (soccer/football) and “la marche” (walking) enriches your ability to discuss a wide range of leisure activities in French.

In French, expressing preferences, likes, and dislikes involves using the expressions “j’adore” (I love), “j’aime” (I like), “je n’aime pas” (I don’t like), and “je déteste” (I hate). These expressions can be followed by either a noun or a verb in the infinitive form, depending on what you’re referring to. Here’s how to use them grammatically:

➡︎ Followed by a Noun

When followed by a noun, these expressions directly state your preference towards a specific thing, activity, or concept.

  • J’adore le chocolat. (I love chocolate.)
  • J’aime la musique. (I like music.)
  • Je n’aime pas le froid. (I don’t like the cold.)
  • Je déteste les mensonges. (I hate lies.)

➡︎ Followed by a Verb in the Infinitive

When followed by a verb in the infinitive form, these expressions describe your feeling about an action or activity.

  • J’adore voyager. (I love to travel.)
  • J’aime lire. (I like to read.)
  • Je n’aime pas courir. (I don’t like to run.)
  • Je déteste attendre. (I hate to wait.)

📌 Key Points to Remember

  • When expressing likes or dislikes about a general activity or concept, use the infinitive form of the verb.
  • To talk about specific items, people, or concepts, follow the expressions with a noun.
  • The verb “aimer” can also be used in a more nuanced way to express love towards people, in which case it’s often used in the simple present tense (e.g., “J’aime mes amis” – I love my friends).

By understanding how to correctly use these expressions with both nouns and verbs, you can more accurately and richly express your preferences and feelings in French.


Exercise 1: Translate to French

Translate the following sentences into French.

  1. I love to travel during my vacation.
  2. She hates cooking, but she loves baking.
  3. We like to watch movies on Friday nights.
  1. J’adore voyager pendant mes vacances.
  2. Elle déteste cuisiner, mais elle adore faire de la pâtisserie.
  3. Nous aimons regarder des films les vendredis soirs.

Exercise 2: Fill in the Blank

Fill in the blanks with an appropriate hobby or leisure activity.

  1. J’adore _______ les magazines de mode. (I love reading fashion magazines.)
  2. Il déteste _______ mais adore _______ à la plage. (He hates swimming but loves sunbathing at the beach.)
  3. Nous aimons _______ dans les parcs. (We like walking in local parks.)
  1. J’adore lire les magazines de mode. (I love reading fashion magazines.)
  2. Il déteste nager mais adore bronzer à la plage. (He hates swimming but loves sunbathing at the beach.)
  3. Nous aimons marcher dans les parcs. (We like walking in parks)

Exercise 3: Expressing Your Interests

Using the vocabulary provided, write sentences expressing your hobbies or asking someone about theirs.

  1. Write a sentence about a hobby you love.
  2. Ask a question about someone’s leisure activities.

Exemples :

  1. J’aime lire.
  2. Est-ce que tu aimes lire ?


Discussing hobbies and leisure activities in French not only enriches your vocabulary but also opens up new avenues for engaging conversations. Practice these phrases and exercises to confidently talk about your interests and inquire about others’. Remember, sharing hobbies can be a great way to connect with native speakers and other learners alike. Bonne chance!

discussing weather in french

Discussing Weather in French

Lesson 20: Discussing Weather in French


Discussing weather in French is today’s focus in Lesson 20! This lesson, designed for English speakers, aims to enhance conversational skills in French. Learning to talk about the weather is essential for daily communication and planning activities. Welcome!

French free lesson

Discussing the Weather in French

Key Vocabulary

FRench Phrase English Translation
Il fait chaud. It’s hot.
Il fait froid. It’s cold.
Il fait beau. The weather is nice.
Il fait mauvais. The weather is bad.
Il y a du brouillard. There is fog.
Il y a du vent. It’s windy.
Il y a du soleil. It’s sunny.
Il pleut. It’s raining.
Il neige. It’s snowing.
Il pleut des cordes. It’s pouring rain.
Il fait lourd. It’s muggy/humid.
Il gèle. It’s freezing.
Le ciel est couvert. The sky is overcast.
Il y a des éclairs. There are lightning flashes.
Il tonne. It’s thundering.

Here’s how to answer the question ‘What’s the weather like today?

Il fait quel temps aujourd’hui ? What’s the weather like today?

1.1 Using “Il fait” for General Conditions

  • Il fait chaud. (It’s hot.)
  • Il fait très chaud en été. (It’s very hot in summer.)
  • Il fait chaud aujourd’hui, n’est-ce pas ? (It’s hot today, isn’t it?)
  • Il fait froid. (It’s cold.)
  • Il fait trop froid pour sortir sans manteau. (It’s too cold to go out without a coat.)
  • Il fait froid ce matin. (It’s cold this morning.)
  • Il fait beau. (The weather is nice.)
  • Il fait beau au printemps. (The weather is nice in spring.)
  • Quand il fait beau, j’aime aller à la plage. (When the weather is nice, I like to go to the beach.)
  • Il fait mauvais. (The weather is bad.)
  • Il fait mauvais toute la semaine. (The weather is bad all week.)
  • Il fait souvent mauvais en novembre. (The weather is often bad in November.)


1.2 Using “Il y a” for Specific Phenomena

  • Il y a du brouillard. (There is fog.)
  • Il y a du brouillard sur la route ce matin. (There is fog on the road this morning.)
  • Il y a souvent du brouillard en automne. (There is often fog in autumn.)
  • Il y a du vent. (It’s windy.)
  • Il y a beaucoup de vent aujourd’hui. (It’s very windy today.)
  • Il y a du vent, ferme la fenêtre. (It’s windy, close the window.)
  • Il y a du soleil. (It’s sunny.)
  • Il y a du soleil, mettons de la crème solaire. (It’s sunny, let’s put on some sunscreen.)
  • Il y a enfin du soleil après une semaine de pluie. (There is finally sun after a week of rain.)

1.3 Using “Il + Verb” for Weather Actions

discussing weather in French

  • Il pleut. (It’s raining.)
  • Il pleut, prends ton parapluie. (It’s raining, take your umbrella.)
  • Il pleut des cordes. (It’s pouring rain.)
  • Il neige. (It’s snowing.)
  • Il neige, l’école est annulée. (It’s snowing, school is cancelled.)
  • Regarde comme il neige ! (Look how it’s snowing!)

These expanded examples provide a richer understanding of how to discuss various weather conditions in French, adding depth to your vocabulary and conversational skills. Practice using these phrases to become more comfortable talking about the weather in French.

The Weather in French : conclusion

Discussing weather in French is a fundamental skill that will help you in daily conversations, making plans, and understanding forecasts. Practice these exercises to improve your fluency in discussing weather. Bonne chance!

Keywords: Discussing weather in French, French time expressions, Learn French, French vocabulary, French for English speakers

French Adverbs of Frequency

French Adverbs of Frequency

Mastering French Adverbs of Frequency: Essential Guide for English Speakers


Welcome to our lesson on French adverbs of frequency! As an English speaker, understanding these adverbs is essential for describing how often activities or actions occur. Let’s dive into the most common French adverbs of frequency and their usage.

Understanding French Adverbs of Frequency

Adverbs of frequency in French are used to express how often something happens. They are usually placed after the verb they modify, but some can also appear at the beginning or end of a sentence.

The Most Common Adverbs of Frequency

  1. Toujours (Always)
    • Example:  Elle travaille toujours.  (She always works.)
    • Example:  Ils sont toujours en retard.  (They are always late.)
  2. Souvent (Often)
    • Example:  Nous voyageons souvent.  (We travel often.)
    • Example:  Il mange souvent au restaurant.  (He often eats at the restaurant.)
  3. Parfois (Sometimes)
    • Example:  Je lis parfois le soir.  (I sometimes read in the evening.)
    • Example:  Elle parle parfois anglais.  (She sometimes speaks English.)
  4. Rarement (Rarely)
    • Example:  Tu vas rarement au cinéma.  (You rarely go to the cinema.)
    • Example:  Nous utilisons rarement cette porte.  (We rarely use that door.)
  5. Jamais (Never)
    • Example:  Il ne voyage jamais.  (He never travels.)
    • Example:  Elle ne mange jamais de viande.  (She never eats meat.)


Exercise 1: Translate to French

Translate the following English sentences into French using the correct adverbs of frequency.

  1. I often go to the park.
  2. They never watch television.
  3. She always drinks coffee in the morning.
  4. We sometimes play tennis on weekends.
  5. He rarely visits his grandparents.
  1. Je vais souvent au parc.
  2. Ils ne regardent jamais la télévision.
  3. Elle boit toujours du café le matin.
  4. Nous jouons parfois au tennis le week-end.
  5. Il rend rarement visite à ses grands-parents.

Exercise 2: Choose the Correct Adverb

Fill in the blanks with the correct French adverb of frequency.

  1. Je regarde _____ des films étrangers. (sometimes)
  2. Elles vont _____ à la gym. (rarely)
  3. Nous avons _____ des devoirs. (always)
  4. Tu étudies _____ le français. (often)
  5. Il mange  _____ de la glace. (never)
  1. Je regarde parfois des films étrangers.
  2. Elles vont rarement à la gym. (rarely)
  3. Nous avons toujours des devoirs. (always)
  4. Tu étudies souvent le français. (often)
  5. Il ne mange  jamais de la glace. (never)

Exercise 3: Sentence Construction

Create a sentence using each of the following French adverbs of frequency.

  1. Toujours
  2. Souvent
  3. Parfois
  4. Rarement
  5. Jamais

Toujours (Always)

  1. Elle répond toujours rapidement aux emails. (She always responds quickly to emails.)
  2. Il mange toujours des céréales au petit-déjeuner.  (He always eats cereal for breakfast.)
  3. Nous arrivons toujours à l’heure pour les réunions. (We always arrive on time for meetings.)

Souvent (Often)

  1. Ils vont souvent au cinéma le vendredi soir. (They often go to the cinema on Friday nights.)
  2. Je lis souvent avant de dormir. (I often read before going to sleep.)
  3. Tu voyages souvent pour ton travail. (You often travel for your work.)

Parfois (Sometimes)

  1. Parfois, nous allons nous promener après le dîner. (Sometimes, we go for a walk after dinner.)
  2. Elle parle parfois en espagnol avec ses amis. (She sometimes speaks Spanish with her friends.)
  3. Il mange parfois végétarien. (He sometimes eats vegetarian.)

Rarement (Rarely)

  1. Nous mangeons rarement au restaurant. (We rarely eat at restaurants.)
  2. Il utilise rarement son ordinateur portable. (He rarely uses his laptop.)
  3. Tu regardes rarement la télévision. (You rarely watch television.)

Jamais (Never)

  1. Je ne manque jamais mes cours de yoga. (I never miss my yoga classes.)
  2. Il ne boit jamais de soda. (He never drinks soda.)
  3. Elle ne rate jamais une échéance. (She never misses a deadline.)


Mastering French adverbs of frequency is crucial for expressing the frequency of actions or events. Practice these exercises to improve your understanding and usage of these adverbs in everyday French. Bonne chance!